Saturday, 17 November 2018

How Umbilical Cord Blood Banking works

Despite all the planning and caution, life seems to be unpredictable at one phase or the other! And it's mostly, when individuals are faced with a health crisis, where the ailment at hand is chronic and irreversible. Humans try to secure the health of their children and loved ones in many ways. One such way that has gained popularity owing to its growing success rate, is cord blood stem cell transplant. Today, it is considered to be a miracle cure for diseases that previously doctors considered as dead-end.


The use of UCB (Umbilical Cord Blood) as a rich source for cord blood stem cells have expanded in the past decade. Today, it is already a successful practice for treating children who are suffering from haematological malignancies. Furthermore, there's also the use of double UCB and minimized-intensity transplantation platforms that have also played its part in this expansion. In the recent times, the registry-based evaluation and the end-to-end multi-center and single institution clinical trials are researching on ways to make the UCB transplantation more acceptable. The objective is to address the complex ailments such as sickle cell disease and Kostmann's syndrome and treat it successfully through the transplant without any side effects.

Once a baby is born, the cord blood gets collected from the placenta and the umbilical cord. The collection process is very simple and poses no risk either to the baby or the mother. These cord blood cells comprise of Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which are the rare cells usually spotted in bone marrow as well.

It is said that the Haematopoietic stem cells has the capacity to produce all kinds of cells in blood i.e. white cells, red cells and platelets. They are accountable for retaining blood production all through the life. And they have also been utilized for several years in the bone marrow transplants for treating blood related ailments. In addition to that there also have been numerous reports that suggest that cord blood might also comprise of specific kind of stem cells that can create a distinctive cell that doesn't belong to blood, for instance nerve cells. Such ideas and theories are debatable and are being researched upon for correct validation.

In the recent times, over 6000 patients globally have been treated with stem cell transplants. The U.S Food and Drug Administration still consider this process experimental and urge that there's scope for expertise in future. However, the doctors usually procure cord blood from children whose parents have decided to store the cord blood. At the time of transplant if the patient and donor have genetic similarity then the patient's body will accept the transfusion.

According to Mary Laughlin, Cord Blood Transplantation Expert, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio there's a constant battle or action to reaction that goes on between the recipient and donor cells, and every patient and doctor wants the donor cells to win invariably. Usually, the stem cell transplants are considered more forgiving that other processes, such as the bone marrow transplants even if the donor isn't an exact match.

As there is growth in the volunteer stem cell donor bands, the patients who are in need of it are closer to getting the best match and thus the chances of recovery is more. According to the Center for Cord Blood in Minneapolis, Minnesota, which is biggest public cord blood donor bank in United States, the chances of procuring a perfect or near perfect match today has increased exponentially in the last 4 years.

So, from Beta Thalassamia Major, Inherited Red Cell Abnormalities, Pure Red Cell Aplasia, Multiple Myeloma to Plasma Cell Leukaemia cord blood stem cell transplant has successfully treated it all. And its future is a promising one where medical experts are researching on treating other chronic ailments with UCB.

Our immune system is calibrated to provide us with specific protection shields against harmful diseases, and other conditions too. On being influenced by the excessive active cells and intruder cells, interfering with its physical functions, our immune system is more likely to lose its strength to fight diseases, and as a result it causes a range of autoimmune diseases or different types of leukemia.

Immune cells mostly referred to as T cells can reverse the effects of these defective cells and reinstate the balance through a reprogram technique. With a reprogram technique manipulating the performances of certain immune cells, we can remain unaffected to the prevalence of different diseases, including cancers and psoriasis. This also fosters the development of new treatment options.

This is how the scientists at the Gladstone Institute have expressed about their latest findings. A renowned journal Nature has published about this metabolic mechanism in an elaborate way.

How Much Effective Is the Whole Method Of Reprogramming T Cells?

The whole method of manipulating T cells or immune cells, advocates for the reduction of anti-inflammatory reactions, developed in the immune system through pro-inflammatory genes. So, the inflammation causing factors in the immune system could be curtailed using this modification theory.

On the basis of the findings, there are two types of cells termed as Effector T cells and Regulatory T cells. These two cells play a key role in regulating our whole immune system. The Effector T cells build a shield against the pathogens so as to protect us from the vulnerability to infections, once the immune system gets charged up. The Regulatory T cells on the other hand, restrict further attacks of the pathogens to the healthy parts of our body.

With Regulatory T cells being converted into Effector T cells under the influence of reprogramming technique, a molecule drug appears to be a great precursor in the whole process. So, this method seems to be effective in converting one cell into another cell type.

The conversion methods show promise to find the etiology of the disease, especially auto-immune diseases, making it possible to eradicate the diseases from its root. Say, when effector T cells are charged up excessively in the body in the presence of autoimmune disease, the T cells expose the body to harmful effects. But by converting these Regulatory T cells, the balance of the immune system can be reinstated, followed by the reduction of hyperactivity.

Treatment for Immune-Oncology

Another way, the study is intensifying our hopes against the deadly effects of cancers and tumor related disorders. We can achieve a better outcome for immune-oncology and cancer treatments. The process is ineffective in influencing the cancer cells though; it defies its attacks on the activation of the immune system.

Since cancer cells seem to be stronger to influence Regulatory T cells, they make a room in the immune system for the growth, and hence, the detection becomes quite tough. But, the findings could help us in detecting cancerous cells and destroying them by strengthening the immune system through a conversion of Effector T cells from Regulatory T cells.

More Scopes for Stem Cell Therapies

It also brings a revolutionary milestone for stem cell therapies. With the development of Regulatory T cells, we could reverse the effects of graft-versus-host-disease, and also make our body adjust to the newly-transplanted cells.

With a reprogram technology for immune system, we could defend ourselves from a range of diseases, once which were termed as unavoidable medical cases. Hence, we can live our dream to make a disease-free world in the future.
our height has a lot to do with so many factors like your genes, diet, age, activity levels and so on. As a result of this, there are some things you can do to boost your height if you really desire it and if you are still at the growing stage.

Eat a balanced diet

You should consume a balanced diet and avoid too much fatty foods that will make you look plumpy because you will look shorter. It is also important for you to make sure that your diet consists of lean protein like fish, soy, white poultry meat, etc., in order to enhance muscle growth and virile bones. You also need enough zinc from foods like pumpkin, oysters, peanuts, just to mention a few. Vitamin D also promotes bone and muscle growth, and you can get this from milk and cereals.

Get enough sleep every night

Your body grows when you sleep, hence, it is important to sleep very well at night. If you are a teenager or younger than 20, you should get between 9 and 11 hours of sleep every night. Getting good, sound sleep will boost the production of human growth hormone (HGH) which is naturally produced through the pituitary gland, particularly when you are deeply asleep.

Exercise regularly

Regular exercising can assist you to grow taller during your teen years and in puberty. You should get a workout for at least 30 minutes everyday and you can join a gym in order to get access to exercising as well as muscle-building machines. You can also become a member of a sports team and take advantage of the competitiveness to exercise. If you can't get yourself to do all these, you can walk around and you will be amazed at how easy it is for you to exercise. Walk to school, grocery, library, etc. and before you realize it, you are already working out.

Do not stunt your growth

Even though there is a limit to what you can do to increase your height, there are many steps you can take to avoid shortening your height by environmental influences. Drugs and alcohol are believed to be partly responsible for stunted growth, especially if you take them while you are young. Caffeine consumption is also linked to not getting enough sleep which may hinder your normal growth.

Expect to be in your 20s before you stop growing

It is very important for you to know that you will get to your twenties before you will stop growing. If you are still at the puberty stage or under 18, you are definitely still growing and you should work hard not to stunt your growth.

Anemia is a body condition characterized by low-level of hemoglobin in the red blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia occurs when your body does not have enough iron and since iron is responsible for producing hemoglobin, the rest of your body will not be able to get the required oxygen for daily activities.

There are many signs to suggests that you have an iron-deficiency anemia; shortness of breath, general fatigue, pale skin, dizziness, cold hands and feet, headaches, tingling feeling in the legs, just to mention a few. Many people may not be aware of this condition until they actually go for a medical test.

Causes

If you consume too little iron over a long period of time, it may lead to a deficiency in your body. Menstruating and pregnant women are also at a high risk of shortage due to blood loss during menstruation and childbirth. Internal bleeding caused by stomach ulcer, polyps in colon or intestines, regular intake of pain relievers like aspirin, can also put you at risk. Some disorders or surgeries that affect the intestines can be a source of interference with the ability of your body to absorb iron.

Treatment

There are many treatment options available for iron-deficiency anemia. You can take iron supplements and if possible, you can take them on an empty stomach so that they can be easily absorbed by the body. There may also be need for you to take them for a long period of time depending on your level of deficiency.

Furthermore, you should ensure that your diet is rich in iron. Foods like red meat, nuts, dark green leafy vegetables, cereals, dried fruits, etc., can be of great help. You should also take citrus fruits because they are rich in vitamin C which helps your body to absorb iron. If excessive bleeding is the cause of the deficiency, you will need to consult a competent medical practitioner in order to help you stop the bleeding. Blood transfusion is also an option if there is an urgent need to boost the iron level.

Prevention

You can prevent iron-deficiency anemia by eating foods rich in iron and vitamin C. Mothers should give breast milk to their children and, if possible, infant formula fortified with iron. Foods rich in iron include meat, like pork, chicken, lamb and beef, beans, pumpkin and squash seeds, eggs, seafood, such as clams, sardines, shrimp and oysters, iron-fortified dry and instant cereals, leafy greens, such as spinach raisins and other dried fruit.

This effectively minimizes rancidity, retards lipid oxidation, without any damage to the sensory or nutritional properties, resulting in maintaining quality and shelf-life of meat products. However, intrinsic factors are available in live muscle to prevent lipid oxidation. These factors are often lost after slaughtering during conversion of muscle to meat, primary/secondary processing, handling, or storage of meat products, necessitating further supplementation with extrinsic antioxidants.

For this reason, synthetic antioxidants, such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), were extensively used to delay, retard, or prevent the lipid oxidation by scavenging chain-carrying peroxyl radicals or suppressing the formation of free radicals. However, because of the concern over the safety of these synthetic compounds, extensive work is being carried out to find novel and naturally occurring compounds to delay the oxidative degradation of lipids, improve quality, and maintain the nutritional value of foods. Thus, natural antioxidants have greater application potential in the meat industry because of the consumers' acceptability over the synthetic antioxidants. However, the application of plant extracts, herbs, spices, and essential oils with antioxidant effects is still distant for the major reasons of limited data about their effects in different meat products.

The meat industry is demanding antioxidants from natural sources to replace synthetic antioxidants because of the negative health consequences or beliefs regarding some synthetic antioxidants. Fruits, vegetables, by-products, and other plant materials provide good alternatives. Some of these antioxidants, apart from oxidation inhibition, may also affect other quality attributes positively or negatively, and ultimately affect consumer acceptability of the product. It has been shown that treatment with some natural sources can cause changes in the color of meat or meat products. Spices have shown to affect the flavor profile of treated meat and poultry products. Depending on the product, these flavors may be viewed as negatively or as positively by sensory panels. Some ingredients negatively affect the technological properties of meat and meat products, such as texture and emulsion properties. The safe edible use of these natural sources also depends on their health-related issues because some of these may also contain anti-nutritional or even toxicological factors. Thus, while establishing a new source of natural antioxidant for use in the meat and meat product at small, medium, or commercial level, following should be considered:

· The in vitro antioxidant activity should be based on various different analytical techniques. The activity should also be confirmed in targeted products during various processing conditions; thus, the effects of cooking, pressure, product ingredients, and so on, on antioxidant potential should be confirmed.

· The active ingredients/molecules of crude, concentrated or/and raw material should also be identified, and efficient conditions for extraction/separation of that particular molecule possessing potent antioxidant activity should be studied.

· Apart from oxidation inhibition, other product attributes should also be considered. Thus, the overall cumulative effect of identified antioxidants should be evaluated in different products before reaching to a conclusion. For example, if one source is a very potent antioxidant, it can also affect the color and sensory properties negatively and lower the acceptability of the final product; then a proper conclusion should be drawn to establish these negative implications. Some natural antioxidants are also sensitive to light, temperature, and pH which results in reduction of antioxidant potential. Thus, future studies should also be directed towards exploring the storage and processing environment effects on the antioxidative potential of natural antioxidants.

· Economics is the other main factor on which sustainability of any industry depends. Thus, economical extraction conditions should be well addressed relative to yield, time, infrastructure requirements, treatment materials, as well as the availability of natural sources. The correlation between economics of antioxidant use and economics of oxidation spoilage should also be considered before making any conclusion for the meat industry.

· Mere conclusions based on in vitro, in vivo, or in producto antioxidant activity is not suitable when new unconventional antioxidant sources are discovered. Thus, nutritional and toxicological studies (in vitro/in vivo) must be done to ascertain the safe edible use of these natural sources. This is the most important point because the meat industry is rejecting synthetic antioxidants on the basis of negative health-related issues; thus, while accepting new natural antioxidants, these must be analyzed for the same health-related consequences.
Staying healthy seems like a punishment to many until it is accompanied by the opportunity to earn you 200k.
Given that both cost savings and staying healthy are desirable but challenging aspects with an impact on your financial wellbeing, several approaches can be employed to ensure that both are achieved seamlessly without discarding the other.
Here are some of the approaches to staying healthy and earn 200k in cost savings and as extra income from various incentivized wellness programs.
  1. Insurance discount
Insurance premiums are periodically deducted in your income to facilitate payment of medical bills in case you fall ill. Some insurance providers encourage healthy living among their clients so as to reduce the cost of claims. Customers who stay healthy benefit from discounts on premium payable or cashback refunds. Some insurance providers give up to 15% as a refund to customers who exhibit healthy living in their activities and medical records.
  1. Paid wellness challenges
Several wellness challenge applications that encourages healthy living by incentivising the entire process using financial rewards exist on the market. Subscribers commit to a programme and set a goal which upon being met will be paid with cash and cash equivalents. However, if the subscriber fails to meet the target, for example losing 500 calories in a week, the application deducts an agreed amount from their committed funds. This approach provides both positive and negative motivation aimed at encouraging healthy living.
  1. Alternative workout
The average gym membership cost is approximated at $58 a month, exclusive of the extra charges such as the registration/initiation fee and other fringe costs. It translates to roughly as high as $1000 a year depending on the location. Earn this $1000 by using alternative workout regimes with equipment that are freely available in your house or engage in outdoor activities and freely access public facilities.
  1. Cycling to work
The average commuting cost and time in America is $10 and 25 minutes respectively. This translates to an annual cost of $2600. Cycling to work not only eliminates this cost but it also provides you with an ample 50 minute mental and physical workout to and from work.
  1. Go veggie
You can save up to $25 a week or $1200 annually by omitting meat and meat products in your meals. Increased intake of vegetables not only helps you to stay healthy but stopping meat consumption also boost the 'health' of your wallet through cost savings.
  1. Befriend technology
Wearable gadgets and smart watches have inbuilt healthy living applications that tracks physical activities such as walking, the heart rate, calories burned or added, etc. This data can be synchronized to other stakeholders such as retail stores and businesses that encourage healthy living, and the user earns points that are converted into cash discount redeemable at the store.It pays, literally, when you stay active and healthy, and within 1-2 years of staying healthy you can make up to 200k. Staying healthy and being physical active saves you money in the in the long run (pun intended).


Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/9912986

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