Saturday, 17 November 2018

how brain cell works in the body

A recent study by the Stanford research team has concluded that the immune cells send muscle injury signal to activate stem cell regeneration.


Immune cells activate cells for muscle regeneration and repair which will aid in treating muscle disorders. Studies indicate that a gene Adamts 1 gets switched on in these cells. This is a secret protein that activates satellite cells in case of muscle injury.

But the Adamts 1 does not appear to produce the protein at the injury. There is a white blood cell called macrophage (literally means eaters) which is responsible in producing the protein at the injury site. They travel to the wound and keep it clean and healthy by eating bacteria, the dead cells and viruses. They also release protein to alert the immune system to fight the infection.

While cleaning the wound it also signals the muscle to regenerate. The Adamts 1 also nips a protein known as NOTCH which is found on the satellite cell surface. NOTCH indicates to the satellite cell to stay dormant. When Adamts 1 destroys NOTCH, the satellite cell gets activated, and starts to divide and transform into muscle cells.

There is a direct link between the cells that clean the injury and they also signal it to start regenerating and rebuilding the muscle that was destroyed. This facet is present only in the uninjured muscles.

Macrophages release Adamts 1 which nips the protein of the NOTCH which keeps them in a restful stage. When NOTCH is deactivated the cells start making new muscle.

Mice that have been tested for this Adamts 1 have shown a curious case. It is seen that they have more muscle damage and the muscle stem cells reduce over time and Adamts 1 becomes less capable of repairing the damaged muscle. More importantly it is just one cell that is able signal to the muscle stem cells and stimulate it to differentiate muscle.

These cells are also called muscle stem cells. These lay inactive and only come into action when there is an injury and damage from it. The satellite cell function breaks down due to aging and diseases like muscular dystrophy. These satellite cells drastically reduce in number and also cannot divide any longer which leads to muscle degeneration.

The research also says that this plays an important role in its activation. The study gives a deep understanding of muscle regeneration, and repair that will help in the development of new treatments for various muscle disorders.

Previous studies on a gene called Adamts 1 suggest that it is turned on strongly in the activated satellite cells than the dormant satellite cells. Most important is the fact that a single protein is enough to send a signal to the muscle stem cells and stimulate them and they can differentiate muscles. This makes it a natural mechanism which can be manipulated to help support the efforts of healing and building therapies to improve health drastically.
Your health is your wealth. A healthy man is a wealthy man, literally. You may think of a tycoon who owns so much material wealth but their health troubles them. What is the point of all the material wealth if you cannot enjoy it? The money spent on doctors could have been channelled in other better avenues. Similarly, ever thought of how quick an employee gets replaced at work? You probably fell ill or a colleague passed on. The job vacancy goes up no sooner than the bad news leaves your mind.

Therefore, it is important that you take care of your health. It is with this in mind, we have noted down these health tips. There are simply recommendations. We are free to do more or less, as per what we desire.

1. Drink Water

This may sound cliché but it is very important. Top of the list in good health tips to practise is staying hydrated. The human body functions mainly on water. Take a person who is fasting, they can do away with food but they are allowed to take water. Water keeps you alert and keeps your body functional. At times, people have headaches simply because of dehydration. However, most people are quick to take paracetamol tablets. It is recommended that you take between 6 - 8 glasses of water every day. Stay hydrated and you definitely will remain rejuvenated.

2. Work out

Among daily health tips that we should not compromise is working out. Now, you don't need to have a gym membership. Life is not as complicated. We all want to have the gym membership but what if you don't? You can simply buy a skipping rope and put in the cardio at home. Get a comfortable pair of trainers and have a morning or evening run. If that's too much, walk. If you own a pet, this can be ideal timing for you to bond.

3. Meditate

The career woman today has so much going on in her daily activities. She ought to be a wife at home, mother and deliver at work. It is very easy to lose yourself when so much is expected of you. Among the health tips for women would be embracing meditation. Most people say they don't have time for such but if it is important, you find time for it. Take time alone and just get lost in your positive thoughts. Visualize or even take part in yoga. You take control of your emotional health particularly which is very important.

4. Sleep well

Sleep is a very debatable subject. Some people prescribe 8 hours of sleep while others prescribe 6 hours. In the same line of thought, you hear of very successful people who sleep for 4 hours and are very functional. Therefore, my recommendation is sleep well. It is not the quantity but quality of sleep that counts. If you sleep for 10 hours and it's a noisy place, you won't rest well. You can however sleep for 2 hours in a very serene environment and get up very energetic. It is the quality that counts, not the quantity.

A power nap in the afternoon is said to keep one youthful. I don't know how true it is but there could be truth to it. What I know is that when you feel sluggish in the afternoon, a power nap goes a long way. There is no point of dragging through your tasks yet you can just sleep for ten minutes and be rejuvenated. However, do not be a serial afternoon sleeper and call it a power nap. That is outright laziness.

5. Eat well

Among the good health tips to practise on a daily is your diet. Having a balanced diet is very important. Your body will not lack anything. Similarly, with food it is the quality and not quantity that matters. You may eat so much but your body will only take up what it needs. That roast beef can be very tempting but your body will only take up the amount of protein needed. Just have the appropriate serving for you. What is not used up ends up being fat in your body.

6. Laugh more

As absurd as it sounds, this is the easiest good health tip you can utilise. We live in a world where everybody is focused on getting things done. People no longer savour the taste of good food. People can't smell well brewed coffee. It is sad. People's moods are at an all time low. To avoid this, just afford a good laugh each day. Find humour in the little things. If laughing is tedious, smile. You never know who you will smile at and they will have a great day just because of your smile.

7. Socialise

Perhaps you are wondering what this means? In the office setting, people don't necessarily socialise. Everyone is doing what brought them there and are quick to head home as soon as they are done. Not many people would say they are close to their colleagues. We don't know what challenges our colleagues may be facing at home. Similarly, people don't know if you have challenges.

It is a great daily health habit to socialise especially with your loved ones. Make time to be with your family. This is perfect to get away from the hustle of making a living. Through family and loved ones, you get to appreciate what life has to offer. You count your blessings and just soak in each moment.

Leading a healthy lifestyle is an option each of us can make. It can be challenging however, since not many people appreciate healthy living. Or maybe they do, they are just not willing to put in the work. Therefore, be the agent of change. You can exemplify what healthy living is like. If you don't practise any of the above daily healthy habits, there is hope. Just practise with one. Increase your water intake or just sleep a bit better. With time, you will reap the benefits.

I can almost guarantee that if you've taken any sort of health class, no matter if it was voluntary or forced by your high school, you've learned all about a balanced diet. You've found the importance of figuring out a way to have your cake and eat healthy too.

When it comes to a healthy lifestyle, I find it important to work out once a day and eat healthy throughout the work week. Let's be honest, the thought of a strict no carb diet is dreadful, and how many times can we actually say it's something we've followed through with? I know for me, the word diet and the thought of a dramatic change are too intimidating to even think about. Instead, I've reverted to a lifestyle with a balanced routine.

As for working out, I have given myself the goal of sweating for at least 30 minutes a day. It gives me the "I did something good for myself" feeling with the "OK I can do this" mentality. I chose 30 minutes a day because it's not only doable but it's also exciting to think I get to set aside a half hour to be with myself, my music, and not care about what everyone else is doing.

Similar to my workout regimen, I have set a limit to going out only on the weekends, except if there's a special occasion. Alcohol consumption is tough on the body and paired with the loss of sleep can cause you to eat more and turn into a cycle of unhealthy chaos. I learned the importance of this balance by first cutting out alcohol altogether, only to experience the pendulum swing to the more common side of casual and social alcohol intake. It took me a while to develop an understanding of how my body reacts to certain spirits, and how often I can drink without putting a damper on the next few days.

For me, finding a balance between dining out and eating in has been nothing short of difficult. From my friends asking me if I want to go to dinner or the thought of not wanting to cook, finding moderation here is tough. Throughout college, I found it difficult to say no to going out to eat because it was social and I was exhausted from my day. However, once I began to meal prep, the game changed for the better. I started to give myself limits once again and told myself if I ate in at least three nights a week, I could go out to dinner on the weekends without feeling guilty.

Balance in life is difficult to find, through the hectic demands of work and the little time we have left for ourselves at the end of the day, I have found it important to balance the few parts we have control of.

There are about 2 million Americans who suffer from Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) annually. The severity of the trauma may differ from patient to patient but leads to a wide range of motor, behavioral, cognitive as well as intellectual disabilities in the patients. These disabilities may be long term or short term. TBI is a global health concern and despite the huge number of injuries, the treatment options are limited.

There have been many treatments and studies that suggested excessive burst of new brain cells after TBI helped in the recovery of the patients better. Breaking this common assumption, Dr. Viji Santhakurmar (Associate Professor in the Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Neuroscience, Rutgers University) and her colleagues proved otherwise with their report. They challenged this assumption and found that an excessive neurogenesis may, in fact, lead to memory decline, seizures.

Neurogenesis aftera a Brain Injury May Lead to Memory Decline, Seizures

It has been proposed that increase in neurogenesis aids in the repair of the injured brain network. However, survivors of a traumatic brain injury often develop life-changing disorders such as a decrease in memory as well as epileptic seizures.

Researchers found there was a considerate increase in the new nerve cell growth (neurogenesis) that was probably to help replace the damaged or destroyed brain cells. However, Santhakumar and her colleagues found evidence contradictory to the popular belief. They found the spike in brain cell growth may, in fact, lead to post-injury seizures and long-term memory decline.

This team from Reuters University examined brain injuries in lab rats and found that brain cells at the injury site play an important role. These cells double in number within 3 days after injury; however, they decrease by more than half after a month as compared to rats with no brain injury. The neural stem cells develop into mature cells too showed a similar increase and decrease pattern. Thus, proving they were responsible for the loss of brain cells.

As quoted by Professor Viji Santhakumar in a press release, "There is an initial increase in birth of new neurons after a brain injury but within weeks, there is a dramatic decrease in the normal rate at which neurons are born, depleting brain cells that under normal circumstances should be there to replace damaged cells and repair the brain's network. The excess new neurons lead to epileptic seizures and could contribute to cognitive decline. It is normal for the birth of new neurons to decline as we age. But what we found in our study was that after a head injury the decline seems to be more rapid."

According to the study, post-injury changes in the development of new cells along with the neural precursor cell proliferation led to a long-term decline in the neurogenic capacity. When the post-injury neurogenesis was reduced early on resulted in dentate excitability and seizure susceptibility.

To achieve this goal of slowing down nerve cell growth after injury, researchers used anti-cancer drugs that are under clinical trials currently. These drugs are known to block the growth and survival of new nerve cells. The drugs were able to stop the rapid proliferation of the nerve cells and prevented the long-term decline in brain cells that lead to memory decline in lab rats. It also showed the rats had reduced risk of seizures after administration of these drugs.

Dr. Santhakumar says that they believe in limiting the process of rapid growth of nerve cells will prove to be helpful in stopping the seizures after a brain injury.

These findings spark hope for those with TBI that one day these methods will definitely help in reducing the short-term and long-term symptoms that alter the life of the patients after a challenging injury to the brain.

So far, we have got to know about the positive applications of these therapies, which are transplanted into the body with living cells to treat, or eliminate the disease from the patient's body. The most common type of cell therapy is the hematopoietic therapy. Harvested from the donor's body for the host to develop bone marrow, it is a well-known cell based therapy, with its self-renewal and differentiation capabilities into many cell types.

Stem cell based therapies have the potential to treat numerous disorders, especially blood and immune related disorders. A wide range of these therapies including allogenic cell therapies, autologous therapies, and mesenchymal these therapies has shown a major breakthrough for curing many medical conditions such as sclerosis, spinal cord injury, diabetes and strokes in the clinical trials. More recently, we have the boon of induced pluripotent stem cells, having the same characteristic as adult embryonic stem cells that can be cultured to produce embryonic stem cells. These cells are important for another key reason- tissue engineering.

Over the last few decades, cell therapies have received medical and commercial successes for emerging as a novel therapeutic option for many cellular dysfunctional diseases. If data are to be believed, the global market of stem cell therapy had touched an average of $410 million revenues by 2009, and the market was expected to grow double and reached a total of 100 million people in the US.

And due to its numerous medical benefits, medical companies and research institutes want to bring its clinical applications from bench to bedside.

Although open to many controversies and debate, we have enough evidence to prove that therapy is indeed an effective therapeutic application to address a range of diseases, including cosmetic procedures like hair regrowth, skin redefining and etc.

In addition to this, the growing number of cell based clinical trails hold true to the potential for stem cell efficacies and its applications. A recent study as of June 2010 highlighted the capabilities of cell therapies through 2000 (approx.) clinical studies on biomedical research.

While the manipulation of embryonic cells is limited and controversial, a greater chance to develop engineered tissues from iPSC is viable for the medical interventions in serious conditions. And this is the underlying reason, why public and society demand for more clinical trials of stem cell based therapies and their applications in the medical fields.

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